last update: 2018 11 30

Climate change

The solutions

The problems

Climate change: Oceans 'soaking up more heat than estimated' (2018-11-01).
Building new renewables is now cheaper than just running old coal and nuclear plants (2017-11-20).

Future of Energy I Ramez Naam I Exponential Energy I SingularityU Czech Summit 2018 (2018-05-25).

More than 40 percent of world coal plants are unprofitable: report (2018-11-30).

The solutions

In no particular order.


How we can turn the cold of outer space into a renewable resource | Aaswath Raman (2018-06-22).
In the future, particular surfaces reflect heat to outer space while other solar radiation is used to produce electricity.


Enforcement of a low-fat low-protein high-carb vegan diet for medical, ecological, economic and ethical reasons.
Cowspiracy movie. Available on Youtube and Netflix.
What the Health movie. Available on Youtube and Netflix.
The Game Changers Official Teaser Trailer.
Mic. the Vegan. Notably I Thought We Required Animal Protein....
Plant based meat.

Different sources of energy

Elimination of all industries that prevent a decrease of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere after 2025.
Total Surface Area Required to Fuel the World With Solar or Offshore Wind (2009-08-13).
Building new renewables is now cheaper than just running old coal and nuclear plants (2017-11-20).
Future of Energy I Ramez Naam I Exponential Energy I SingularityU Czech Summit 2018 (2018-05-25).
New Study: 50% Renewables Would Save AZ More than $4 Billion (2018-06-14).

Wind Farms Might Heat up the Planet, After All (2018-10-05).

Different storage of energy

As heat.
E.g. in molten salt. Project Malta.

As energy in batteries.
Vanadium redox battery.
Solid state battery.

As energy in recyclable fuel like ethanol or hydrogen to be used in fuel cells so that the CO2 remains contained.
'Instantly rechargeable' battery could change the future of electric and hybrid automobiles (2017-06-01).
Solar-to-Fuel System Recycles CO2 to Make Ethanol and Ethylene (2017-09-18).
Methanol-Fueled Cars Could Drive Us Toward an Emissionless Future (2018-05-31).

According to the Global Carbon Atlas:
36 183 million metric tons of CO2 emissions in 2016.

According to estimates in 2018 by Carbon Engineering and Climeworks: At a cost of $ 600 per metric ton of CO2, the capture of the emissions of 2016 (36 183 million metric tons) costs $ 21 710 billion or $ 21.7 trillion.
At a cost of $ 100 per metric ton of CO2, the capture of the emissions of 2016 (36 183 million metric tons) costs $ 3 618 billion or $ 3.6 trillion.

Nuclear power

Nuclear power. Especially fusion power after 2030 or 2040.
The long term problem of nuclear waste is very small compared to the very urgent very big problem of climate warming.

Europe’s heatwave is forcing nuclear power plants to shut down for ecological reasons (warm rivers) (2018-08-06).
Other coolants than water of rivers might be used in the near future. E.g. molten salt.

Reduction of greenhouse gases

Carbon sequestration to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is urgent and required.

Carbon sequestration by permanent CO2 mineral storage in basalts.
E.g. The CarbFix project.

Carbon sequestration by trees.
E.g. BioCarbon Engineering.

Blue Carbon in the oceans

Sequestration of carbon as blue carbon.
The Blue Carbon initiative.
Unfortunately it is not well known how to manage blue carbon.

Fertilizing the Ocean with Iron (2007-11-13).
World's biggest geoengineering experiment 'violates' UN rules (2012-10-15).

Study backs seaweed's carbon capturing potential (2015-05-19).

10 Regenerated Ocean Amazon Pastures Will Naturally Manage The World’s CO2 Crisis And Bring Back The Fish (2016-06-27).
But: Seeding iron in the Pacific may not pull carbon from air as thought (2016-03-03).
Can we remove a trillion tons of carbon from the atmosphere? (2018-05-03).


Notably regarding methane.


The problems

Drastic changes are urgent if preservation of the current species is important.
IMO allowing all animals of species adapted: is morally unacceptable.

Migration of humans, other animals and plants to colder regions because of climate change will happen.
But numbers are difficult to predict:

I am optimistic.
Before 2030: Before 2040:
A Dance of Technology and Crisis | Nicholas Haan | SingularityU India Summit 2017 (2017-05-17).

We need more humans who work for a better world. Not less.

There is no local overpopulation if:
List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita.

There is need for urgent change.
There is no reason for panic.
The biosphere had been much warmer in former geological epochs.

Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).
Carbon release from permafrost.

Warming because of CO2 is catastrophic for most current species

The harm of climate change and pollution in 2017 is estimated to be over 300 billion dollars in the USA.
Assessing the U.S. Climate in 2017 (2018-01-05).

Unpredictable costs are measured in trillions.
The harm of climate change and pollution regarding humans, animals, other living beings is unfathomable.

Global warming reaches 1°C above pre-industrial level in 2015, warmest in more than 11,000 years.
Naomi Oreskes on climate change: “We’ve blown it… but pessimism is not acceptable” (2016-02-24).
Why Hope Is Dangerous When It Comes to Climate Change (2017-07-25).
Barents Sea seems to have crossed a climate tipping point (2018-06-26).
Decomposing Plastics Have Been a Source of Greenhouse Gases This Whole Time (2018-08-02).

Warming because of arctic methane is apocalyptic for must current species

Damage worth of hundreds of trillions because of arctic thawing (2013-07-25).
Release of Arctic Methane “May Be Apocalyptic,” Study Warns (2017-03-23).
Extreme Heat Event in Northern Siberia and the coastal Arctic Ocean This Week (2018-07-02).

Harmful people in power

Harmful delusional people in position of power either as company owners or politicians or voters.
The oil industry was worth $1.7 trillion in 2016 (2016-10-23).
Annual global fossil fuel subsidies amounting to $5.3 trillion in 2015 (6.5% of global GDP) (2017-10).
Pruitt chooses not to ban pesticide after scientists find neurotoxicity (2017-03-30).
Fuel economy standards kill people, Trump administration claims (2018-02-08). Actually: Austerity kills. Poverty kills. Lack of money for science and technology kills. The military kills.
EPA to its employees: Ignore science when talking about climate change (2018-03-29).
Details for Europe.
Disappointing opinions in the reddit futurology forum (2018-07-06).
Rich countries pushing 'dirty energy' in Africa, report claims (2018-07-23).
No Existing Policies Will Be Enough To Prevent A Future “Hothouse Earth” (2018-08-08).