last update: 2018 10 05The solutions.
globalcarbonatlas.org How we can turn the cold of outer space into a renewable resource | Aaswath Raman (2018-06-22).
In the future, particular surfaces reflect heat to outer space while other solar radiation is used to produce electricity. high-carb vegan diet for medical, ecological, economic and ethical reasons.
Cowspiracy movie. Available on Youtube and Netflix.
What the Health movie. Available on Youtube and Netflix.
The Game Changers Official Teaser Trailer.
PLANT BASED NEWS. Notably WHY LOW CARB DIETS ARE A SCAM.
Mic. the Vegan. Notably I Thought We Required Animal Protein....
Plant based meat. impossiblefoods.com.
Total Surface Area Required to Fuel the World With Solar or Offshore Wind (2009-08-13).
Building new renewables is now cheaper than just running old coal and nuclear plants (2017-11-20).
Future of Energy I Ramez Naam I Exponential Energy I SingularityU Czech Summit 2018 (2018-05-25).
New Study: 50% Renewables Would Save AZ More than $4 Billion (2018-06-14).
Wind Farms Might Heat up the Planet, After All (2018-10-05).
E.g. in molten salt. Project Malta.
As energy in batteries.
Vanadium redox battery.
Solid state battery.
As energy in recyclable fuel like ethanol or hydrogen to be used in fuel cells so that the CO2 remains contained.
'Instantly rechargeable' battery could change the future of electric and hybrid automobiles (2017-06-01).
Solar-to-Fuel System Recycles CO2 to Make Ethanol and Ethylene (2017-09-18).
Methanol-Fueled Cars Could Drive Us Toward an Emissionless Future (2018-05-31).
According to the Global Carbon Atlas:
36 183 million metric tons of CO2 emissions in 2016.
According to estimates in 2018 by Carbon Engineering and Climeworks:
- The cost of capturing 1 metric ton CO2 from the air costs $ 600 in 2018 and could fall under $ 100 in 5 - 10 years.
- A plant could make a liter fuel for a dollar.
At a cost of $ 100 per metric ton of CO2, the capture of the emissions of 2016 (36 183 million metric tons) costs $ 3 618 billion or $ 3.6 trillion. Nuclear power. Especially fusion power after 2030 or 2040.
The long term problem of nuclear waste is very small compared to the very urgent very big problem of climate warming.
Europe’s heatwave is forcing nuclear power plants to shut down for ecological reasons (warm rivers) (2018-08-06).
Other coolants than water of rivers might be used in the near future. E.g. molten salt.
Carbon sequestration to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is urgent and required.
Carbon sequestration by permanent CO2 mineral storage in basalts.
E.g. The CarbFix project.
Carbon sequestration by trees.
E.g. BioCarbon Engineering. blue carbon.
The Blue Carbon initiative.
Unfortunately it is not well known how to manage blue carbon.
Fertilizing the Ocean with Iron (2007-11-13).
World's biggest geoengineering experiment 'violates' UN rules (2012-10-15).
Study backs seaweed's carbon capturing potential (2015-05-19).
- "Macroalgae in particular are of interest because they generally produce a lot of biomass and are easily transported making them potential 'donors' to blue carbon stocks.
- "However we don't know if this carbon is as chemically stable as that of coastal plant species or whether seaweed carbon can be stored long term in coastal habitats."
10 Regenerated Ocean Amazon Pastures Will Naturally Manage The World’s CO2 Crisis And Bring Back The Fish (2016-06-27).
- The Case Against Eating Fish. As a biologist, I know what can happen to seafood before it ends up on our plates. That’s why it’s not on mine.
- It’s Official: Fish Feel Pain (2018-01-08)
Can we remove a trillion tons of carbon from the atmosphere? (2018-05-03).
Reaction with the hydroxyl radical – The major removal mechanism of methane from the atmosphere involves radical chemistry; it reacts with the hydroxyl radical (·OH) in the troposphere or stratosphere to create the ·CH3 radical and water vapor. In addition to being the largest known sink for atmospheric methane, this reaction is one of the most important sources of water vapor in the upper atmosphere.
CH4 + ·OH → ·CH3 + H2O
This reaction in the troposphere gives a methane lifetime of 9.6 years. Two more minor sinks are soil sinks (160 year lifetime) and stratospheric loss by reaction with ·OH, ·Cl and ·O1D in the stratosphere (120 year lifetime), giving a net lifetime of 8.4 years. Oxidation of methane is the main source of water vapor in the upper stratosphere (beginning at pressure levels around 10 kPa).
- Soils act as a major sink for atmospheric methane through the methanotrophic bacteria that reside within them. This occurs with two different types of bacteria. "High capacity-low affinity" methanotrophic bacteria grow in areas of high methane concentration, such as waterlogged soils in wetlands and other moist environments. And in areas of low methane concentration, "low capacity-high affinity" methanotrophic bacteria make use of the methane in the atmosphere to grow, rather than relying on methane in their immediate environment.
Potentially unstable methane deposits exists in permafrost regions, which are expected to retreat as a result of global warming, and also clathrates, with the clathrate effect probably taking millennia to fully act. The potential role of methane from clathrates in near-future runaway scenarios is not certain, as studies show a slow release of methane, which may not be regarded as 'runaway' by all commentators. The clathrate gun runaway effect may be used to describe more rapid methane releases. Methane in the atmosphere has a high global warming potential, but breaks down relatively quickly to form CO2, which is also a greenhouse gas. Therefore, slow methane release will have the long-term effect of adding CO2 to the atmosphere.
In order to model clathrates and other reservoirs of greenhouse gases and their precursors, global climate models would have to be 'coupled' to a carbon cycle model. Most current global climate models do not include modelling of methane deposits.
IMO allowing all animals of species adapted:
- to current temperatures to suffer from heat stress until death
- to current vegetation to suffer from starvation or poisoning until death
- to current oxygen levels in oceans to suffer from asphyxation or poisoning until death
- to current acidity in oceans to suffer from poisoning until death
Migration of humans, other animals and plants to colder regions because of climate change will happen.
But numbers are difficult to predict:
- How much will the temperature rise ?
- How much land used for food growth will become unavailable ?
- How much food using GMO can be produced in-door in sterile conditions where only machines should work ?
- How much food using GMO can be produced out-door in hot and/or humid conditions where only machines can work ?
I am optimistic.
- Most voters decide for a cooler climate and vegan diets.
- Negative carbon emissions (carbon neutrality) will be achieved because of technology.
- Most food will be vegan and based on GMO. Hopefully animals products will be prohibitively expensive.
- Much work will be automated.
- Modern poverty might be tolerated no longer. At least since 2000, modern poverty is a political decision. Poverty is the reason for most problems.
- Climate control in buildings and cities will become even more important.
- Automation of almost all work will happen.
- Some kind of world government will manage the population of humans, other animals and plants on Earth.
A Dance of Technology and Crisis | Nicholas Haan | SingularityU India Summit 2017 (2017-05-17).
We need more humans who work for a better world. Not less.
There is no local overpopulation if:
- no tolerance for social austerity.
- no tolerance for economic austerity.
- no tolerance for scientific austerity.
- no tolerance for animal products.
- no tolerance for war.
- no tolerance for prevention of migration to more hospitable regions.
- no tolerance for fossil fuel.
List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita.
There is need for urgent change.
There is no reason for panic.
The biosphere had been much warmer in former geological epochs.
Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).
- 55 million years ago
- 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today.
- The planet was essentially ice-free.
- On land, modern mammal orders (including primates) suddenly appear in Europe and in North America.
- At least since 1997, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum has become a focal point of considerable geoscience research because it probably provides the best past analog by which to understand impacts of global climate warming and of massive carbon input to the ocean and atmosphere, including ocean acidification. Although it is now widely accepted that the PETM represents a "case study" for global warming and massive carbon input to Earth's surface, the cause, details and overall significance of the event remain perplexing.
- From 56 to 33.9 million years ago.
- At about the beginning of the Eocene Epoch (55.8–33.9 million years ago) the amount of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere more or less doubled.
- The polar stratospheric clouds had a warming effect on the poles, increasing temperatures by up to 20 °C in the winter months.
At the beginning of the Eocene, the high temperatures and warm oceans created a moist, balmy environment, with forests spreading throughout the Earth from pole to pole. Apart from the driest deserts, Earth must have been entirely covered in forests.
Polar forests were quite extensive. Fossils and even preserved remains of trees such as swamp cypress and dawn redwood from the Eocene have been found on Ellesmere Island in the Arctic. Even at that time, Ellesmere Island was only a few degrees in latitude further south than it is today. Fossils of subtropical and even tropical trees and plants from the Eocene also have been found in Greenland and Alaska. Tropical rainforests grew as far north as northern North America and Europe.
Palm trees were growing as far north as Alaska and northern Europe during the early Eocene, although they became less abundant as the climate cooled. Dawn redwoods were far more extensive as well.
- The atmospheric carbon dioxide values were at 700–900 ppm while other proxies such as pedogenic (soil building) carbonate and marine boron isotopes indicate large changes of carbon dioxide of over 2,000 ppm over periods of time of less than 1 million years.
- Greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane, played a significant role during the Eocene in controlling the surface temperature. The end of the PETM was met with a very large sequestration of carbon dioxide in the form of methane clathrate, coal, and crude oil at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean, that reduced the atmospheric carbon dioxide.
From hothouse (PETM) to icehouse climate.
Prossibly because of the Azolla event.
Carbon release from permafrost.
- Carbon is continually cycling between soils, vegetation, and the atmosphere. Currently, carbon flux from permafrost soils is minimal, however studies suggest that future warming and permafrost degradation will increase the CO2 flux from the soils. Thaw deepens the active layer, exposing old carbon that has been in storage for decades, to centuries, to millennia. The amount of carbon that will be released from warming conditions depends on depth of thaw, carbon content within the thawed soil, and physical changes to the environment. The likelihood of the entire carbon pool mobilizing and entering the atmosphere is low despite the large volumes stored in the soil. Although temperatures are projected to rise, it does not imply complete loss of permafrost and mobilization of the entire carbon pool. Much of the ground underlain by permafrost will remain frozen even if warming temperatures increase the thaw depth or increase thermokarsting and permafrost degradation.
Assessing the U.S. Climate in 2017 (2018-01-05).
Unpredictable costs are measured in trillions.
The harm of climate change and pollution regarding humans, animals, other living beings is unfathomable.
Global warming reaches 1°C above pre-industrial level in 2015, warmest in more than 11,000 years.
- While the technical and economic feasibility of holding below 2°C and limiting warming below 1.5°C by 2100 is not affected by crossing the 1°C level (see our briefing note on the feasibility of 2°C and 1.5°C), with each year’s delay in reducing global emissions, this task will get more difficult, and more costly.
Naomi Oreskes on climate change: “We’ve blown it… but pessimism is not acceptable” (2016-02-24).
- I am intrinsically an optimistic… But it’s difficult to stay optimistic in the present moment, especially in the face of continued denial of people who should know better.… We cannot give up the fight because it’s not too late to avoid the worst damage.” — Naomi Oreskes
Why Hope Is Dangerous When It Comes to Climate Change (2017-07-25).
- As things get worse, they will get worse faster.
- Hoping that science will provide a solution is its own kind of surrender, relieving the pressure of confronting the ways of life that have given rise to climate change in the first place.
Barents Sea seems to have crossed a climate tipping point (2018-06-26).
- But the general gist of the study is considerably more ominous: not only have we discovered a climate tipping point, but we've spotted it after the system has probably already flipped into a new regime.
Decomposing Plastics Have Been a Source of Greenhouse Gases This Whole Time (2018-08-02).
- ... as the paper’s senior author, University of Hawai’i oceanographer David Karl, put it in a statement. “This source is not yet budgeted for when assessing global methane and ethylene cycles, and may be significant.”
- But the release of a single giant "pulse" of methane from thawing Arctic permafrost beneath the East Siberian sea "could come with a $60tn [£39tn] global price tag", according to the researchers who have for the first time quantified the effects on the global economy.
Release of Arctic Methane “May Be Apocalyptic,” Study Warns (2017-03-23).
- “Global warming triggered by the massive release of carbon dioxide may be catastrophic,” reads the study’s abstract. “But the release of methane from hydrate may be apocalyptic.”
- The study, titled “Methane Hydrate: Killer Cause of Earth’s Greatest Mass Extinction,” highlights the fact that the most significant variable in the Permian Mass Extinction event, which occurred 250 million years ago and annihilated 90 percent of all the species on the planet, was methane hydrate.
- A study published in the prestigious journal Nature in July 2013 confirmed what Shakhova had been warning us about for years: A 50-gigaton “burp” of methane from thawing Arctic permafrost beneath the East Siberian sea is highly possible.
- Such a “burp” would be the equivalent of at least 1,000 gigatons of carbon dioxide. (For perspective, humans have released approximately 1,475 gigatons in total carbon dioxide since the year 1850.)
Extreme Heat Event in Northern Siberia and the coastal Arctic Ocean This Week (2018-07-02).
- This will generate maximum daily temperatures as high as 90-95 degrees (32-35 C) near the open ocean coast!
The oil industry was worth $1.7 trillion in 2016 (2016-10-23).
Annual global fossil fuel subsidies amounting to $5.3 trillion in 2015 (6.5% of global GDP) (2017-10).
Pruitt chooses not to ban pesticide after scientists find neurotoxicity (2017-03-30).
Fuel economy standards kill people, Trump administration claims (2018-02-08). Actually: Austerity kills. Poverty kills. Lack of money for science and technology kills. The military kills.
EPA to its employees: Ignore science when talking about climate change (2018-03-29).
Details for Europe.
Disappointing opinions in the reddit futurology forum (2018-07-06).
Rich countries pushing 'dirty energy' in Africa, report claims (2018-07-23).
No Existing Policies Will Be Enough To Prevent A Future “Hothouse Earth” (2018-08-08).